The aim of the present paper is identifying a methodology of study, valid for elastomers in general, in order to experimentally characterize their dynamic behaviour and simulating this behaviour by means of a structured mathematical model. An elastomer was chosen and its equivalent stiffness and equivalent viscous damping coefficient were experimentally determined using a specifically designed test apparatus. The responses to several sinusoidal excitations, characterized by different amplitude and frequency values, were analyzed. Furthermore, different values of static preload applied to the elastomer were considered. The experimental values were reproduced using an equivalent 13 degrees-of-freedom rheological model, optimized through a genetic algorithm.