The NASA-JPL Deep Space 1 Mission (DS1) encountered the short-period Jupiter-family Comet 19P/Borrelly on September 22, 2001, about 8 days after perihelion. DS1's payload contained a remote-sensing package called MICAS (Miniature Integrated Camera Spectrometer) that included a 1024 square CCD and a near IR spectrometer with ∼12 nm resolution. Prior to its closest approach of 2171 km, the remote-sensing package on the spacecraft obtained 25 CCD images of the comet and 45 near-IR spectra (L. Soderblom et al., 2002, Science 296, 1087-1091). These images provided the first close-up view of a comet's nucleus sufficiently unobscured to perform quantitative photometric studies. At closest approach, corresponding to a resolution of 47 meters per pixel, the intensity of the coma was less than 1% of that of the nucleus. An unprecedented range of high solar phase angles (52-89 degrees), viewing geometries that are in general attainable only when a comet is active, enabled the first quantitative and disk resolved modeling of surface photometric physical parameters, including the single particle phase function and macroscopic roughness. The disk-integrated geometric albedo of Borrelly's nucleus is 0.029±0.006, comparable to the dark hemisphere of Iapetus, the lowest albedo C-type asteroids, and the uranian rings. The Bond albedo, 0.009±0.002, is lower than that of any Solar System object measured. Such a low value may enhance the heating of the nucleus and sublimation of volatiles, which in turn causes the albedo to decrease even further. A map of normal reflectance of Borrelly shows variations far greater than those seen on asteroids. The two main terrain types, smooth and mottled, exhibit mean normal reflectances of 0.03 and 0.022. The physical photometric parameters of Borrelly's nucleus are typical of other small dark bodies, particularly asteroids, except preliminary modeling results indicate its regolith may be substantially fluffier. The nucleus exhibits significant variations in macroscopic roughness, with the oldest, darkest terrain being slightly smoother. This result suggests the infilling of low-lying areas with dust and particles that have not been able to leave the comet. The surface of the comet is backscattering, but there are significant variations in the single particle phase function. One region exhibits a flat particle phase function between solar phase angles of 50° and 75° (like cometary dust and unlike planetary surfaces), suggesting that its regolith is controlled by native dust rather than by meteoritic bombardment.