Risks of breast and ovarian cancer were determined for Ashkenazi Jewish women with inherited mutations in the tumor suppressor genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. We selected 1008 index cases, regardless of family history of cancer, and carried out molecular analysis across entire families. The lifetime risk of breast cancer among female mutation carriers was 82%, similar to risks in families with many cases. Risks appear to be increasing with time: Breast cancer risk by age 50 among mutation carriers born before 1940 was 24%, but among those born after 1940 it was 67%. Lifetime risks of ovarian cancer were 54% for BRCA1 and 23% for BRCA2 mutation carriers. Physical exercise and lack of obesity in adolescence were associated with significantly delayed breast cancer onset.