The composition of the solar photosphere is believed to be uniform. Indeed a quantity that does not vary with solar surface location or with a particular solar feature, i.e., no observational evidence is available to indicate that the photospheric composition near the solar equator is different from the photospheric composition near the solar poles or that the photospheric composition in quiet regions is different from the composition in active regions. In contrast, the composition of the solar upper atmosphere is not well defined. Solar composition work in recent decades has brought the recognition that there are systematic differences between the composition of the corona and the photosphere and revealed evidence for spatial and time variability in the composition of various coronal features. We review the spectroscopic techniques used and the progress that was made in recent years in deriving the plasma compositions of various solar upper atmosphere structures.