We compute several coefficients needed for O(a) improvement of currents in perturbation theory, using the Brodsky-Lepage-Mackenzie prescription for choosing an optimal scale q*. We then compare the results to non-perturbative calculations. Normalization factors of the vector and axial vector currents show good agreement, especially when allowing for small two-loop effects. On the other hand, there are large discrepancies in the coefficients of O(a) improvement terms. We suspect that they arise primarily from power corrections inherent in the nonperturbative methods.