This article extends our previous quantitative analysis of the relationship between the dynamics of the primary structure of DNA and mutagenesis associated with single-strand lesions to an analysis of the production and processing of endogenous double-strand breaks (EDSBs) and to their implications for oncogenesis. We estimate that in normal human cells ≈1% of single-strand lesions are converted to ≈50 EDSBs per cell per cell cycle. This number is similar to that for EDSBs produced by 1.5-2.0 Gy of sparsely ionizing radiation. Although EDSBs are usually repaired with high fidelity, errors in their repair contribute significantly to the rate of cancer in humans. The doubling dose for induced DSBs is similar to doubling doses for mutation and for the induction of carcinomas by ionizing radiation. We conclude that rates of production of EDSBs and of ensuing spontaneous mitotic recombination events can account for a substantial fraction of the earliest oncogenic events in human carcinomas.