The fundamental results of those parts of G.V. Kurdyumov's scientific activity which concerns the development of the theory of martensitic transformations are reported. At the same time, an influence of his scientific ideas on the transformation of our knowledge firstly concerning the technology of obtaining the high-strength steel to the branches of solid state physics and science of materials is reflected. Some latest advances in the development of a theory of martensitic transformations and the creation of new construction materials with untraditional characteristics obtained in different counties are presented. The special attention is given to those centres in which development G.V. Kurdyumov directly took part in his time.