Jet production at the Tevatron probes some of the smallest distance scales currently accessible. A gluon distribution that is enhanced at large x compared to previous determinations provides a better description of the Run 1b jet data from both CDF and DØ. However, considerable uncertainty still remains regarding the gluon distribution at high x. In this paper, we examine the effects of this uncertainty, and of the remaining uncertainties in the NLO QCD theory, on jet cross section comparisons to Run 1b data. We also calculate the range of contributions still possible from any new physics. Predictions are also made for the expanded kinematic range expected for the ongoing Run 2 at the Tevatron and for the LHC.