The active volcanoes in China are located in the Changbaishan area, Jingbo Lake, Wudalianchi, Tengchong and Yutian. Several of these volcanoes have historical records of eruption and geochronological evidence of Holocene activity. Tianchi Volcano is a well-preserved Cenozoic polygenetic central volcano, and, due to its recent history of powerful explosive eruptions of felsic magmas, with over 100,000 people living on its flanks is a high-risk volcano. Explosive eruptions at 4000 and 1000 years BP involved plinian and ignimbrite phases. The Millennium eruption (1000 years BP) involved at least 20-30 km 3 of magma and was large enough to have a global impact. There are 14 Cenozoic monogenetic scoria cones and associated lavas with high-K basalt composition in the Wudalianchi volcanic field. The Laoheishan and Huoshaoshan cones and related lavas were formed in 1720-1721 and 1776 AD. There are three Holocene volcanoes, Dayingshan, Maanshan, and Heikongshan, among the 68 Quaternary volcanoes in the Tengchong volcanic province. Three of these volcanoes are identified as active, based on geothermal activity, geophysical evidence for magma, and dating of young volcanic rocks. Future eruptions of these Chinese volcanoes pose a significant threat to hundreds of thousands of people and are likely to cause substantial economic losses.