The sub-picosecond laser microstructuring of multilayer gratings is presented in this paper. A micromachining system operating with a 0.5 ps KrF laser at 248 nm was used to etch grating structures with a groove width of 1-2 μm in Mo/Si and Si/Mo multilayers. Atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray reflectivity were used to characterize the microetched patterns. The ω-scans around the 1st Bragg maximum show symmetric satellites up to 3rd order, with positions corresponding to the grating period. The use of sub-picosecond laser pulses minimizes the thermally affected zone and enhances the quality of the etched features. Short pulse laser processing is advantageous for the fabrication of high spatial resolution microstructures required in X-ray optics.