Stress anisotropy in circular planar magnetron sputter deposited molybdenum films and its annealing effect
As part of the program to develop a free-standing thin-film filter for soft X-ray optics application, stress anisotropy in the molybdenum films deposited by dc circular planar magnetron sputtering were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) as a function of sputtering argon gas pressure over a range of 0.8-1.5 Pa. Surface morphology of the films has been investigated by optical microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). It is found that, for the film deposited at 0.8 Pa pressure, the stresses are more compressive in the tangential than in the radial direction; the highest compressive stress exists in the center area. The film deposited at 1.5 Pa pressure has the highest stress anisotropy, and the stresses are less tensile in the tangential than in the radial direction. Annealing in vacuum is more effective in reducing tensile stress and stress anisotropy in the tensile stressed film than in the compressively stressed film.