We introduce a self-similar mass model for early-type galaxies and constrain it using the aperture mass-radius relations determined from the geometries of 22 gravitational lenses. The model consists of two components: a concentrated component, which traces the light distribution, and a more extended power-law component (ρ~r-n), which represents the dark matter. We find that lens galaxies have total mass profiles that are nearly isothermal, or slightly steeper, on the several-kiloparsec radial scale spanned by the lensed images. In the limit of a single-component, power-law radial profile, the model implies n=2.07+/-0.13, consistent with isothermal (n=2). Models in which mass traces light are excluded at higher than 99% confidence. An n=1 cusp (such as the Navarro-Frenk-White profile) requires a projected dark matter mass fraction of fcdm=0.22+/-0.10 inside two effective radii. These are the best statistical constraints yet obtained on the mass profiles of lenses and provide clear evidence for a small but nonzero dark matter mass fraction in the inner regions of early-type galaxies. In addition, we derive the first strong-lensing constraint on the relation between the stellar mass-to-light ratio Υ and galaxy luminosity L, Υ~L0.14+0.16-0.12, which is consistent with the relation suggested by the fundamental plane. Finally, we apply our self-similar mass models to current problems regarding the interpretation of time delays and flux ratio anomalies in gravitational lens systems.
The Astrophysical Journal
- Pub Date:
- September 2003
- Galaxies: Elliptical and Lenticular;
- Galaxies: Structure;
- Cosmology: Gravitational Lensing;
- 30 pages including 6 figures, to be published in ApJ