The successful creation of ballistic rockets in USSR has allowed at the end of 1953 to make a real task of delivery of a payload into the Earth's orbit. In March 1954 during the meeting in the Academy of Sciences of USSR, the basic research problems conducted by means of artificial satellites of the Earth were determined. In May, 1954 S. Korolev has sent to Government of the USSR the report with the offer of creation the space satellites on the basis of intercontinental ballistic rocket -7 developed by him. It was the first time when the idea about possibility of interplanetary flights was stated in the official document. In August 1954 Council of Ministers of the USSR had ratified the submitted offers and have entrusted to work over scientific and theoretical problems of space flight. In the beginning of 1956 the Korolev's United Design Bureau was officially entrusted the creation and launch of undirected research satellite named "Object D" weighing 1.000-1.400 kg in 1957-1958. The main scientific management and development of scientific equipment was assigned to a commission of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR under the direction of . Keldysh. The measurement of parameters of the atmosphere, corpuscular radiation of the Sun, magnetic fields, space radiation etc. was planned during the "Object D" flight. The successful performance in the middle of 1956 of the second series of launches of geophysical rockets has allowed to gain a large volume of the information about parameters of physiological functions and behavior of animals in conditions of flight. For enlargement of these works the laboratory of V. Yazdovsky in the Institute of aviation medicine was extended to a department, the large group of the new employees, including V. Antipov, . Baevsky, I. Balakhovsky, B. Buylov, . Genin, O. Gazenko, A. Gurdjian, I. Kasyan, A. Kotovskaya, E..Yuganov, . Shepelev and others came to the department. But, owing to the delay of development of the scientific equipment for the "Object D", the Soviet Government set a new term of start in the end of 1956 - April, 1958. However, owing to the widely advertised program of launch of the first Earth's artificial satellite "Vanguard" in the USA, S. Korolev pressed in February 1957 for the Government regulation about anticipated launches of two light unrecoverable satellites in April-May, 1957 before the International geophysical year. But, according to this regulation, the launch of the satellite was permitted only after one or two successful test flights of a rocket -7. The first successful test of a rocket -7 was held only in August, 1957. The successful launch of the Earth's first artificial satellite in October 4, 1957 has made stunning influence on all the world. To continue this success, N. Khrushzev in October 10 1957 stated to launch the second satellite with an animal onboard till November 7 (40 years of October Revolution). The level of complexity of forthcoming tasks was much higher. Tightness of a cabin and the systems of life-support of the satellite should provide considerably large duration of flight under previous dimensions and power consumption. The research equipment should also ensure long uninterrupted registration of the scientific data and their transfer on ground stations. At last, the realization of additional training and special preparation of dogs was required. O. Gazenko, A. Genin, A. Seryapin, A. Gurdjian, . Petrova and other researchers carried out these works in laboratory of V. Yazdovsky. Less than one month remained for realization of this very difficult experiment with dog onboard. For preparation of experiments with dogs the experience of high-altitude rocket flights was taken. The cycles of step-by-step training of dogs for forthcoming flight have allowed to select the steadiest dogs and to receive the necessary initial data for design of the life-support systems. As a result of these works, a hermetic cabin with life-support systems and research equipment were developed. 10 dogs successfully finished complete course of training and experiments were also selected. Three dogs were selected for flight: Albina, Layka and Mushka. Albina flied on a rockets twice before, and it was decided to continue observation over it. The decision therefore was accepted to send Layka in flight. Albina was a double, and Mushka was a "technological dog" - all the equipment and life-support systems of the satellite were tested on it. The flight of the second artificial satellite of the Earth with Layka dog was held on November 3, 1957. All resources of life- support system were designed for 7 days of flight. The analysis of the data of the parameters of the environment of the cabin has shown, that the content of oxygen during flight was sufficient. The fact, that pressure in the cabin was not reduced, proved its reliable tightness. It was very important, as the satellite passed through areas of meteoric flows. Normalization of parameters of breath and blood circulation of Layka during orbital flight has allowed to make a conclusion, that the long weightlessness does not cause essential changes in a status of animal organisms. During flight the gradual increase of temperature and humidity in the cabin was registered via telemetric channels. Approximately in 5 - 7 hours of flight there was a failure of telemetry system. It was not possible to detect a status of the dog since the fourth circuit. During the ground simulation of this flight's conditions, the conclusion was made, that Layka should be lost because of overheating on 3d or 4-th circuit of flight. It turned out that it was practically impossible to create a reliable temperature control system in such limited time constraints. The biological research, which has been carried out on second satellite, has complimented a material obtained during vertical launches of rockets. The received experimental data have confirmed the initial assumption, that the conditions of space flight will not cause harm to live creatures, including humans. The achieved level of development of space medicine has allowed to approach closely the task of manned space flight. These researches were also carried within the framework of aviation medicine, though in practice were already outside its field of "jurisdiction".
IAF abstracts, 34th COSPAR Scientific Assembly
- Pub Date:
- January 2002