From an observational perspective cosmology is today in excellent shape - advances in instrumentation and data processing have enabled us to study the universe in detail back to when the first galaxies formed, map the fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background which provide a measure of the overall geometry, and reconstruct the thermal history reliably back to at least the primordial nucleosynthesis era. However recent deep studies of the Hubble expansion rate have suggested that the universe is accelerating, driven by some form of `dark' (vacuum) energy. If true, this implies a new energy scale in Nature of order 0.001 eV, well below any known scale of fundamental physics. This has refocussed attention on the notorious cosmological constant problem at the interface of general relativity and quantum field theory. It is possible that the resolution of this situation will require fundamental modifications to our ideas about gravity.