Although humans and their closest evolutionary relatives, the chimpanzees, are 98.7% identical in their genomic DNA sequences, they differ in many morphological, behavioral, and cognitive aspects. The underlying genetic basis of many of these differences may be altered gene expression. We have compared the transcriptome in blood leukocytes, liver, and brain of humans, chimpanzees, orangutans, and macaques using microarrays, as well as protein expression patterns of humans and chimpanzees using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. We also studied three mouse species that are approximately as related to each other as are humans, chimpanzees, and orangutans. We identified species-specific gene expression patterns indicating that changes in protein and gene expression have been particularly pronounced in the human brain.