The role of relative entropy in quantum information theory
Abstract
Quantum mechanics and information theory are among the most important scientific discoveries of the last century. Although these two areas initially developed separately, it has emerged that they are in fact intimately related. In this review the author shows how quantum information theory extends traditional information theory by exploring the limits imposed by quantum, rather than classical, mechanics on information storage and transmission. The derivation of many key results differentiates this review from the usual presentation in that they are shown to follow logically from one crucial property of relative entropy. Within the review, optimal bounds on the enhanced speed that quantum computers can achieve over their classical counterparts are outlined using informationtheoretic arguments. In addition, important implications of quantum information theory for thermodynamics and quantum measurement are intermittently discussed. A number of simple examples and derivations, including quantum superdense coding, quantum teleportation, and Deutsch's and Grover's algorithms, are also included.
 Publication:

Reviews of Modern Physics
 Pub Date:
 January 2002
 DOI:
 10.1103/RevModPhys.74.197
 arXiv:
 arXiv:quantph/0102094
 Bibcode:
 2002RvMP...74..197V
 Keywords:

 03.67.Lx;
 84.40.Ua;
 03.67.Hk;
 Quantum computation;
 Telecommunications: signal transmission and processing;
 communication satellites;
 Quantum communication;
 Quantum Physics
 EPrint:
 40 pages, 11 figures