Evolutionary changes, delta progradation, and sediment discharge of the Mekong River Delta, southern Vietnam, during the late Holocene are presented based on detailed analyses of samples from six boreholes on the lower delta plain. Sedimentological and chronostratigraphic analyses indicate clearly that the last 3 kyr were characterized by delta progradation under increasing wave influence, southeastward sediment dispersal, decreasing progradation rates, beach-ridge formation, and steepening of the face of the delta front. Estimated sediment discharge of the Mekong River for the last 3 kyr, based on sediment-volume analysis, was 144±36 million t yr -1 on average, or almost the same as the present level. The constant rate of delta front migration and stable sediment discharge during the last 3 kyr indicate that a dramatic increase in sediment discharge owing to human activities, as has been suggested for the Yellow River watershed, did not occur. Although Southeast Asian rivers have been considered candidates for such dramatic increases in discharge during the last 2 kyr, the Mekong River example, although it is a typical, large river of this region, does not support this hypothesis. Therefore, estimates of the millennial-scale global pristine sediment flux to the oceans must be revised.