In this study, a variable-resolution optical measurement system (VROPMS) based on triangulation measurement technology is proposed. The VROPMS optical scanning probe is composed of dual CCD cameras fitted with zoom lenses and a line laser diode projector. A flexible and novel calibration procedure for VROPMS is developed to acquire the system parameters quickly and accurately. The central position of the reflected laser image is calculated using Gaussian function least-squares fitting of the beam intensity. Subpixel resolution can thus be acquired. Experimental calibration results show that the higher the lens magnification, the finer the derived system resolution. The best accuracy at the zoomed focus position is about 0.02 mm. This system can flexibly zoom in or out to measure a 3D object profile in sections according to the approximate surface profile. Varied mesh images taken from different zoom positions by VROPMS can be patched using the image matching technique to reconstruct the entire profile. A human sculpture with a complex surface profile is measured using VROPMS as a practical illustration of the effectiveness of the system.