Holocene-historical volcanism and active faults as natural risk factors for Armenia and adjacent countries
Examples of Holocene-historical volcanism in the territory of Armenia and adjacent areas of Eastern Anatolia and Western Iran are discussed. Holocene-historical activity is proved for the volcanoes of Tskhouk-Karckar, Porak, Vaiyots-Sar, Smbatassar and Ararat. Based on the analysis of remote sensing data, field work, and historical and archeological information, it is demonstrated that there was a considerable number of cases of volcanic activity in Armenia and adjacent regions of Turkey, Syria and Iran during the historical period. The Holocene volcanic centers are situated within pull-apart basin structures and controlled by active faults. Situated in an area prone to many types of natural hazards, Armenia and adjacent countries face high natural risk. The evidence presented shows that volcanic hazard also contributes to the natural risk for these countries.