In this study, the vibration and acoustic resonance, and dominant frequency range of simple concrete box and viaduct are examined from the measurement results. A narrow band analysis—fast Fourier transform (FFT) method is used to analyze the measurement results and finite element method (FEM) is used to validate resonance frequencies for noise and vibration. The experiment of the concrete box structure is a preliminary study of analyzing resonance frequency radiated from the vibrating concrete structure since railway viaduct is a concrete box structure too. According to their noise and vibration spectra, it shows that the vibration resonance is more significant than the acoustics resonance. Based on the measurement results of the rail viaduct structure-borne noise and vibration, the relationship in terms of transfer function and coherence between noise and vibration are evaluated. They show that the dominant frequency range for noise and vibration of concrete viaduct is between 20 and 157 Hz, the resonance frequencies are 43 and 54 Hz and have significant tonal noise characteristics. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical relationship between sound and vibration.