Three-Dimensional Interaction between a Planet and an Isothermal Gaseous Disk. I. Corotation and Lindblad Torques and Planet Migration
Gravitational interaction between a planet and a three-dimensional isothermal gaseous disk is studied. In the present paper we mainly examine the torque on a planet and the resultant radial migration of the planet. A planet excites density waves at Lindblad and corotation resonances and experiences a negative torque by the density waves, which causes a rapid inward migration of the planet during its formation in a protoplanetary disk. We formulate the linear wave excitation in three-dimensional isothermal disks and calculate the torques of Lindblad resonances and corotation resonances. For corotation resonances, a general torque formula is newly derived, which is also applicable to two-dimensional disks. The new formula succeeds in reproducing numerical results on the corotation torques, which do not agree with the previously well-known formula. The net torque of the inner and the outer Lindblad resonances (i.e., the differential Lindblad torque) is caused by asymmetry such as the radial pressure gradient and the scale height variation. In three-dimensional disks, the differential Lindblad torques are generally smaller than those in two-dimensional disks. Especially, the effect of a pressure gradient becomes weak. The scale height variation, which is a purely three-dimensional effect, makes the differential Lindblad torque decrease. As a result, the migration time of a planet is obtained as of the order of 106 yr for an Earth-size planet at 5 AU for a typical disk model, which is longer than the result of two-dimensional calculation by the factor of 2 or 3. The reflected waves from disk edges, which are neglected in the torque calculation, can further weaken the disk-planet interaction.