Optical Diffraction-Transition Radiation Interferometry and its Application to the Measurement of Beam Divergence
Optical transition radiation interferometry (OTRI) has been shown to be a very useful technique to measure the divergence of electron beams with energies in the range of 15-100 MeV. However, application of this method to low energy or very high quality beams is limited by scattering in the front foil of the interferometer. To overcome this limitation we propose to use a perforated front foil. For the beam energy and hole sizes we are considering, the unscattered beam electrons passing through the holes will produce diffraction radiation (ODR). The total radiation produced from the first and second foils then will be a spatially coherent sum of ODR and OTR from unscattered and scattered electrons. By controlling the number and size of the perforations, the inter-foil spacing, the thickness of the first foil and the wavelength and band pass of the observed radiation, the coherent interferences due to the unscattered portion of the beam can be isolated and observed. The visibility of these interferences can then be used to determine the rms beam divergence. We have developed a general computer code which can be used to calculate diffraction radiation from any type of perforation and another code to compute the ODR-OTR interference pattern for a given set of beam and optical parameters. These codes are employed in the design of an interferometer to measure the divergence of the ATF accelerator operating at 30 MeV. This beam will be used in an initial proof of principle experiment for the ODR-OTR interferometer. We present the results of our code calculations which show that the expected divergence, 200 micro radians, can be easily measured.