Energy gap and London penetration depth of MgB_2 films determined by microwave resonator measurement
We have measured the temperature dependence of the microwave surface impedance Z_s = R_s + i\Omega\mu_0 of a MgB2 film at a frequency \Omega /2\Pi of 18 GHz employing a dielectric resonator technique. We found that the temperature dependence of the magnetic field penetration depth \Lamda can be fitted by \Lamda(T)= \Lamda(0) [1-(T/Tc)^2] ^(-1/2) with \Lamda(0)=(260 +/- 20)nm. The absolute value of \Lamda(0) was confirmed by direct measurements employing submillimeter wave transmission spectroscopy at 430 GHz. The analysis of the \Lamda(T) data below Tc/2 revealed significant deviations from the quadratic temperature dependence. In contrast, we found that an exponential temperature dependence fits the experimental data within the statistical measurement error for temperature changes of \Lamda of +/- 0.4 nm. This observation indicates thermal excitation of quasiparticles over a finite energy gap of (3.3 +/- 0.3) meV corresponding to \Delta /kTc = 1.2 +/- 0.1. Our results strongly supports a multipgap or a strongly anisotropic gap and the absence of nodes in the gap function.