We introduce the first simple mechanical system that shows fully realistic transport behavior while still being exactly solvable at the level of equilibrium statistical mechanics. The system is a Lorentz gas with fixed freely rotating circular scatterers which scatter point particles via perfectly rough collisions. Upon imposing either a temperature gradient and/or a chemical potential gradient, a stationary state is attained for which local thermal equilibrium holds. Transport in this system is normal in the sense that the transport coefficients which characterize the flow of heat and matter are finite in the thermodynamic limit. Moreover, the two flows are nontrivially coupled, satisfying Onsager's reciprocity relations.
Physical Review Letters
- Pub Date:
- June 2001
- Condensed Matter - Statistical Mechanics;
- Nonlinear Sciences - Chaotic Dynamics
- 4 pages, 4 figures, Accepted for publication in Phys. Rev. Lett