Full-wave verification of the fundamental properties of left-handed materials in waveguide configurations
The fundamental electromagnetic properties of left-handed materials (LHMs) are reviewed and verified by finite-element method full-wave analysis using rectangular waveguide structures loaded by a LHM and adopting an effective medium approach. The negative phase velocity, positive intrinsic impedance, and modified boundary conditions at an interface with a right-handed medium are verified by loading a waveguide section with a LHM that has edges perpendicular to the waveguide axis. In addition, the negative angle of refraction is demonstrated by loading the junction of a T-junction waveguide with a LHM having one edge 45° with respect to the waveguide axis. These properties are shown by the evolution of wave fronts in the LHM and by analysis of the S-parameters of the waveguide structures.