The use of alcohol fuel has received much attention since 1980s. In Brazil, ethanol-fueled vehicles have been currently used on a large scale. This paper reports the atmospheric methanol, ethanol and isopropanol concentrations which were measured from May to December 1997, in Osaka, Japan, where alcohol fuel was not used, and from 3 to 9 February 1998, in Sao Paulo, Brazil, where ethanol fuel was used. The alcohols were determined by the alkyl nitrite formation reaction using gas chromatography (GC-ECD) analysis. The concentration of atmospheric alcohols, especially ethanol, measured in Sao Paulo were significantly higher than those in Osaka. In Osaka, the average concentrations of atmospheric methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol were 5.8±3.8, 8.2±4.6, and 7.2±5.9 ppbv, respectively. The average ambient levels of methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol measured in Sao Paulo were 34.1±9.2, 176.3.±38.1, and 44.2±13.7 ppbv, respectively. The ambient levels of aldehydes, which were expected to be high due to the use of alcohol fuel, were also measured at these sampling sites. The atmospheric formaldehyde average concentration measured in Osaka was 1.9±0.9 ppbv, and the average acetaldehyde concentration was 1.5±0.8 ppbv. The atmospheric formaldehyde and acetaldehyde average concentrations measured in Sao Paulo were 5.0±2.8 and 5.4±2.8 ppbv, respectively. The C 2H 5OH/CH 3OH and CH 3CHO/HCHO were compared between the two measurement sites and elsewhere in the world, which have already been reported in the literature. Due to the use of ethanol-fueled vehicles, these ratios, especially C 2H 5OH/CH 3OH, are much higher in Brazil than these measured elsewhere in the world.