Collimated energymomentum extraction from rotating black holes in quasars and microquasars using the Penrose mechanism
Abstract
For almost four decades, since the discovery of quasars, mounting observational evidence has accumulated that black holes indeed exist in nature. In this paper, I present a theoretical and numerical (Monte Carlo) fully relativistic 4D analysis of Penrose scattering processes (Compton and γγ>e^{+}e^{}) in the ergosphere of a supermassive Kerr (rotating) black hole. These model calculations surprisingly reveal that the observed high energies and luminosities of quasars and other AGNs, the collimated jets about the polar axis, and the asymmetrical jets (which can be enhanced by relativistic Doppler beaming effects) all are inherent properties of rotating black holes. From this analysis, it is shown that the Penrose scattered escaping relativistic particles exhibit tightly wounded coillike cone distributions (highly collimated vortical jet distributions) about the polar axis, with helical polar angles of escape varying from 0.5° to 30° for the highest energy particles. It is also shown that the gravitomagnetic (GM) field, which causes the dragging of inertial frames, exerts a force acting on the momentum vectors of the incident and scattered particles, causing the particle emission to be asymmetrical above and below the equatorial plane, thus appearing to break the equatorial reflection symmetry of the Kerr metric. When the accretion disk is assumed to be a twotemperature bistable thin disk/ion corona (or torus), energies as high as 54 GeV can be attained by these Penrose processes alone; and when relativistic beaming is included, energies in the TeV range can be achieved, agreeing with observations of some BL Lac objects. When this model is applied specifically to quasars 3C 279 and 3C 273, their observed high energy luminosity spectra can be duplicated and explained. Moreover, this energy extraction model can be applied to any size black hole, irrespective of the mass, and therefore applies to microquasars as well. When applied specifically to microquasar GRS 1915+105 the results are consistent with observations. .
 Publication:

20th Texas Symposium on relativistic astrophysics
 Pub Date:
 October 2001
 DOI:
 10.1063/1.1419591
 arXiv:
 arXiv:astroph/0111161
 Bibcode:
 2001AIPC..586..448W
 Keywords:

 98.54.Aj;
 95.30.Sf;
 97.60.Lf;
 98.62.Js;
 98.80.Hw;
 Quasars;
 Relativity and gravitation;
 Black holes;
 Galactic nuclei circumnuclear matter and bulges;
 Astrophysics
 EPrint:
 9 Latex pp., including 3 eps figs. (aipproc.sty macros), to appear in proceedings, 20th Texas Symposium on Relativistic Astrophysics (1015 December 2000), edited by J.C. Wheeler and H. Martel, in press