We give a brief sketch of lattice structure function calculations and review previous results for the axial coupling $g_A$. We outline a new technique for treating fermions on the lattice that preserves chiral symmetry, domain wall fermions. Finally, we give preliminary results for the nucleon spectrum using this new technique. Remarkably, a large mass splitting between the $N$ and $N^*$, roughly consistent with experiment, is produced in the calculation. These results are encouraging for proposed calculations of nucleon structure functions.