We report a strong correlation between the [CII] 158 micron cooling line and the mid-infrared flux in the 5-10 micron range in a wide variety of star-forming galaxies. The mid-infrared flux is dominated by Aromatic Feature Emission (AFE), which is thought to arise from large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules or `PAHs' and generally associated with the smallest interstellar grains. The [CII] line is the dominant gas coolant in most regions of atomic interstellar gas, and therefore reflects the heating input to the gas. The ratio of these two quantities, [CII]/AFE, remains nearly constant with the ratio of the IRAS 60 micron band flux to the 100 micron band flux, R(60/100). This is in contrast to the drop in the [CII]/FIR ratio with increasing R(60/100), which signal higher dust temperatures and more intense radiation fields. We interpret the stable [CII]/AFE ratio as evidence that gas heating is dominated by the PAHs or small grains which are also AFE carriers over a wide range of conditions. The trend of decreasing [CII]/FIR with increasing radiation field suggests a decrease in the importance of PAHs or small grains relative to large grains both in gas heating and in dust cooling. We summarize the observed trends and suggest two plausible scenarios.