A critical function of tumor suppressor p53 is the induction of apoptosis in cells exposed to noxious stresses. We report a previously unidentified pro-apoptotic gene, Noxa. Expression of Noxa induction in primary mouse cells exposed to x-ray irradiation was dependent on p53. Noxa encodes a Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3)-only member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins; this member contains the BH3 region but not other BH domains. When ectopically expressed, Noxa underwent BH3 motif-dependent localization to mitochondria and interacted with anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, resulting in the activation of caspase-9. We also demonstrate that blocking the endogenous Noxa induction results in the suppression of apoptosis. Noxa may thus represent a mediator of p53-dependent apoptosis.