We review properties of stellar convection, as derived from detailed 3-D numerical modeling, and assess to what extent 1-D models are able to provide a fair representation of stellar structure in various regions of the HR diagram. We point out a number of problems and discrepancies that are inevitable when using conventional 1-D models. The problems originate mainly in the surface layers,where horizontal fluctuations become particularly large, and where convective energy transport gives way to radiation. We conclude that it is necessary (and possible) to use three-dimensional models of these layers, in order to avoid the uncertainties and inaccuracies associated with 1-D representations.
IAU Colloq. 176: The Impact of Large-Scale Surveys on Pulsating Star Research
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