Over the past three decays, since the discovery of quasars, mounting observational evidence has accumulated that black holes indeed exist in nature. In this paper, I present a theoretical and numerical (Monte Carlo) fully relativistic 4-D analysis of Penrose scattering processes (Compton and γ γ --> e+e^-) in the ergosphere of a supermassive Kerr (rotating) black hole. These model calculations surprisingly reveal that the observed high energies and luminosities of quasars and other AGNs, the collimated jets about the polar axis, and the asymmetrical jets (which can be enhanced by relativistic Doppler beaming effects), all, are inherent properties of rotating black holes. That is, from this analysis, it is shown that the Penrose scattered escaping particles exhibit tightly wounded coil-like cone distributions (highly collimated jet distributions) about the polar axis, with helical polar angles of escape varying from 0.5o to 30o for the highest energy particles. It is also shown that the gravitomagnetic (GM) field, which causes the dragging of inertial frames, exerts a force acting on the momentum vectors of the incident and scattered particles, causing the particle emission to be asymmetrical above and below the equatorial plane, thus breaking the reflection symmetry of the Kerr metric (above and below the equatorial plane). When the accretion disk is assumed to be a two-temperature bistable thin disk/ion corona, recently referred to as an advection dominated accretion flow (ADAF), energies as high as 54 GeV can be attained by these Penrose processes alone; and when relativistic beaming is included, energies in the TeV range can be achieved, agreeing with observations of some BL Lac objects. When this model is applied specifically to quasars 3C 279 and 3C 273, their observed high energy luminosity spectra can be duplicated and explained. Moreover, this Penrose energy extraction model can be applied to any size black hole, irrespective of the mass, and, thus, suggests a complete theory for the extraction of energy from a black hole. Also, it is reemphasized in this paper the reason why the Blandford and Znajek model to extract rotational energy is not tenable, as pointed out by Punsly and Coroniti (1989, 1990a, 1990b). This work is funded by Bennett College and the American Astronomical Society Small Research Grant Program.
American Astronomical Society Meeting Abstracts #195
- Pub Date:
- May 2000