Identification of the Endophilins (SH3p4p8/p13) as Novel Binding Partners for the β 1-Adrenergic Receptor
Several G-protein coupled receptors, such as the β1-adrenergic receptor (β1-AR), contain polyproline motifs within their intracellular domains. Such motifs in other proteins are known to mediate protein-protein interactions such as with Src homology (SH)3 domains. Accordingly, we used the proline-rich third intracellular loop of the β1-AR either as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein in biochemical "pull-down" assays or as bait in the yeast two-hybrid system to search for interacting proteins. Both approaches identified SH3p4/p8/p13 (also referred to as endophilin 1/2/3), a SH3 domain-containing protein family, as binding partners for the β1-AR. In vitro and in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells, SH3p4 specifically binds to the third intracellular loop of the β1-AR but not to that of the β2-AR. Moreover, this interaction is mediated by the C-terminal SH3 domain of SH3p4. Functionally, overexpression of SH3p4 promotes agonist-induced internalization and modestly decreases the Gs coupling efficacy of β1-ARs in HEK293 cells while having no effect on β2-ARs. Thus, our studies demonstrate a role of the SH3p4/p8/p13 protein family in β1-AR signaling and suggest that interaction between proline-rich motifs and SH3-containing proteins may represent a previously underappreciated aspect of G-protein coupled receptor signaling.