Catalytic efficiencies of clay (hectorite), silica and alumina were tested in peptide bond formation reactions of glycine (Gly), alanine (Ala), proline (Pro), valine (Val) and leucine (Leu). The reactions were performed as drying/wetting (hectorite) and temperature fluctuation (silica and alumina) experiments at 85 °C. The reactivity of amino acids decreased in order Gly > Ala > Pro ~ Val ~ Leu. The highest catalytic efficiency was observed for alumina, the only catalyst producing oligopeptides in all investigated reaction systems. The peptide bond formation on alumina is probably catalyzed by the same sites and via similar reaction mechanisms as some alumina-catalyzed dehydration reactions used in industrial chemistry.