A lithium ion rechargeable battery based on carbon anode that is a viable replacement for lithium metal anode has been developed. In this investigation, the Vapor-Grown Carbon Fiber was used as the anode material of a cylindrical battery. The charge/discharge experiments were carried under various temperatures and current densities. Excellent cyclability was obtained at 21°C at a charge/discharge of 0.8 C with three cathode materials (LiCoO 2, LiMn 2O 4, and LiNiO 2). High discharge capacity was obtained at low temperature (0°C). Good cyclability was also obtained at high temperature (40°C). At the charge/discharge rate of 4.0 C, energy density did not decay significantly. Good cyclability was obtained for rates ranging from 0.8 C to 4.0 C. Self-discharge was investigated at 3 temperatures (21, 40 and 60°C). The measured self-discharge was 8, 15 and 31% per month at 21, 40 and 60°C, respectively.