We present a synthesis of crustal evolution in SE China based on extensive Nd and Sr isotopic data compiled from the literature for intrusive granitoids, volcanic, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks from three major tectonic units of SE China: Dabie, Yangtze and Cathaysia. Overall, igneous rocks of Phanerozoic ages possess initial ∊Nd(T) values from -21 to +5 and depleted-mantle model ages ( TDM) from 2.3 to 0.5 Ga. Sedimentary and metamorphic rocks have a TDM range of 3.3 to 1.1 Ga. The model age data indicate that the most important crustal formation took place in the Proterozoic, possibly with a very minor proportion produced in the late Archaean. This finding clearly suggests that the crustal evolution in SE China, including the Yangtze craton and Cathaysia, is distinctly different from the Archaean-dominated North China Block. The Dabie terrane, due to its lack of clear indication of Archaean crustal signal, might belong more logically to the Yangtze Block. The large database shows an oceanward younging of TDM for Phanerozoic igneous rocks in SE China, with the oldest ages found in Cathaysia Interior and the youngest in coastal Fujian and Taiwan. ∊Nd(T) values show parallel systematic variations. Two NE-striking low- T DM zones characterized by high-REE granites in the middle of SE China are identified, but their tectonic significance is not yet clear. Within SE China, timing of the Yangtze-Cathaysia collision (Proterozoic vs. Mesozoic) has been controversial for many years. While the Mesozoic thrust model may be supported by a recent 40Ar/ 39Ar age study that reveals Triassic to Early Jurassic ages for mylonitic rocks from the same fracture zone, a Proterozoic collision model seems to be favoured because (1) abundant Neoproterozoic ages have been obtained recently for a variety of rocks occurring along the Jiangshan-Shaoxing fracture zone and for ophiolite suites of the Banxi Group, and (2) many lines of evidence have been found to argue against the Banxi Group as a melange complex and a long displaced thrust sheet. This issue is not yet resolved by geochronological means, but the present synthesis of Nd isotopic data and model ages and recent palaeomagnetic studies of Lower to Middle Triassic rocks appear to refute the hypothesis of Mesozoic collision.