Bounding the mass of the graviton using gravitationalwave observations of inspiralling compact binaries
Abstract
If gravitation is propagated by a massive field, then the velocity of gravitational waves (gravitons) will depend upon their frequency as (v_{g}/c)^{2}=1(c/fλ_{g})^{2}, and the effective Newtonian potential will have a Yukawa form ~r^{1}exp(r/λ_{g}), where λ_{g}=h/m_{g}c is the graviton Compton wavelength. In the case of inspiralling compact binaries, gravitational waves emitted at low frequency early in the inspiral will travel slightly slower than those emitted at high frequency later, resulting in an offset in the relative arrival times at a detector. This modifies the phase evolution of the observed inspiral gravitational waveform, similar to that caused by postNewtonian corrections to quadrupole phasing. Matched filtering of the waveforms could bound such frequencydependent variations in propagation speed, and thereby bound the graviton mass. The bound depends on the mass of the source and on noise characteristics of the detector, but is independent of the distance to the source, except for weak cosmological redshift effects. For observations of stellarmass compact inspiral using groundbased interferometers of the LIGOVIRGO type, the bound on λ_{g} could be of the order of 6×10^{12} km, about double that from solarsystem tests of Yukawa modifications of Newtonian gravity. For observations of massive black hole binary inspiral at cosmological distances using the proposed Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), the bound could be as large as 6×10^{16} km. This is three orders of magnitude weaker than modeldependent bounds from galactic cluster dynamics.
 Publication:

Physical Review D
 Pub Date:
 February 1998
 DOI:
 10.1103/PhysRevD.57.2061
 arXiv:
 arXiv:grqc/9709011
 Bibcode:
 1998PhRvD..57.2061W
 Keywords:

 04.80.Cc;
 04.30.w;
 97.60.Jd;
 97.60.Lf;
 Experimental tests of gravitational theories;
 Gravitational waves: theory;
 Neutron stars;
 Black holes;
 General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology
 EPrint:
 8 pages, RevTeX, submitted to Phys. Rev. D