We investigate structural transitions within a single stretched and supercoiled DNA molecule. With negative supercoiling, for a stretching force >0.3 pN, we observe the coexistence of B-DNA and denatured DNA from σ ≈ -0.015 down to σ = -1. Surprisingly, for positively supercoiled DNA (σ > +0.037) stretched by 3 pN, we observe a similar coexistence of B-DNA and a new, highly twisted structure. Experimental data and molecular modeling suggest that this structure has ≈ 2.62 bases per turn and an extension 75% larger than B-DNA. This structure has tightly interwound phosphate backbones and exposed bases in common with Pauling's early DNA structure [Pauling, L. & Corey, R. B. (1953), Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 39, 84-97] and an unusual structure proposed for the Pf1 bacteriophage [Liu, D. J. & Day, L. A. (1994) Science 265, 671-674].