The chemotaxis system plays an essential role in swarm cell differentiation and motility. We show in this study that two (Tsr and Tar) of the four chemoreceptors in Escherichia coli can support swarming individually, but sensing their most powerful chemoattractants is not necessary. Conditions that abolish chemotaxis toward serine (presence of serine concentrations that saturate Tsr, or mutations in Tsr that destroy serine binding) have no effect on swarming. Similar results were obtained for the aspartate and maltose chemoreceptor Tar. We also show that although a mutation in the signaling domain of Tsr that inhibits CheA kinase abolishes swarming, nonchemotactic flagellar switch mutants can swarm. Our results suggest that during swarming, the chemoreceptors signal through the chemotaxis pathway and induce swarmer cell differentiation in response to signals other than their known chemoeffectors.