Suppression of Cell Transformation by the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p57KIP2 Requires Binding to Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
Proper control of the mammalian cell cycle requires the function of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors. The p21 family currently includes three distinct genes, p21, p27Kip1, and p57Kip2, that share a common N-terminal domain for binding to and inhibiting the kinase activity of CDK-cyclin complexes. The p21 protein also binds to proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) through a separate C-terminal domain affecting DNA replication and repair. The p27 and p57 proteins also each contain unique C-terminal domains whose functions are unknown. Here we show that the human p57 protein, like p21, contains a PCNA-binding domain within its C terminus that, when separated from its N-terminal CDK-cyclin binding domain, can prevent DNA replication in vitro and S phase entry in vivo. Disruption of either CDK/cyclin or PCNA binding partially reduced p57's ability to suppress myc/RAS-mediated transformation in primary cells, while loss of both inhibitory functions completely eliminated p57's suppressive activity. Thus, control of cell cycle and suppression of cell transformation by p57 require both CDK and PCNA inhibitory activity, and disruption of either or both functions may lead to uncontrolled cell growth.