Homing endonucleases are a diverse collection of proteins that are encoded by genes with mobile, self-splicing introns. They have also been identified in self-splicing inteins (protein introns). These enzymes promote the movement of the DNA sequences that encode them from one chromosome location to another; they do this by making a site-specific double-strand break at a target site in an allele that lacks the corresponding mobile intron. The target sites recognized by these small endonucleases are generally long (14-44 base pairs). Four families of homing endonucleases have been identified, including the LAGLIDADG, the His-Cys box, the GIY-YIG and the H-N-H endonucleases. The first identified His-Cys box homing endonuclease was I-PpoI from the slime mould Physarum polycephalum,. Its gene resides in one of only a few nuclear introns known to exhibit genetic mobility. Here we report the structure of the I-PpoI homing endonuclease bound to homing-site DNA determined to 1.8Å resolution. I-PpoI displays an elongated fold of dimensions 25 × 35 × 80Å, with mixed α/β topology. Each I-PpoI monomer contains three antiparallel β-sheets flanked by two long α-helices and a long carboxy-terminal tail, and is stabilized by two bound zinc ions 15Å apart. The enzyme possesses a new zinc-bound fold and endonuclease active site. The structure has been determined in both uncleaved substrate and cleaved product complexes.