Soft lithography represents a non-photolithographic strategy based on selfassembly and replica molding for carrying out micro- and nanofabrication. It provides a convenient, effective, and low-cost method for the formation and manufacturing of micro- and nanostructures. In soft lithography, an elastomeric stamp with patterned relief structures on its surface is used to generate patterns and structures with feature sizes ranging from 30 nm to 100 mum. Five techniques have been demonstrated: microcontact printing (muCP), replica molding (REM), microtransfer molding (muTM), micromolding in capillaries (MIMIC), and solvent-assisted micromolding (SAMIM). In this chapter we discuss the procedures for these techniques and their applications in micro- and nanofabrication, surface chemistry, materials science, optics, MEMS, and microelectronics.