A Study of Nine High-Redshift Clusters of Galaxies. II. Photometry, Spectra, and Ages of Clusters 0023+0423 and 1604+4304
We present an extensive photometric and spectroscopic study of two high-redshift clusters of galaxies based on data obtained from the Keck 10 m telescopes and the Hubble Space Telescope. The clusters Cl 0023+0423 (z = 0.84) and Cl 1604+4304 (z = 0.90) are part of a multiwavelength program of Oke, Postman & Lubin to study nine candidate clusters at z >~ 0.6. Based on these observations, we study in detail both the field and cluster populations. From the confirmed cluster members, we find that Cl 0023+0423 actually consists of two components separated by ~2900 km s^-1. A kinematic analysis indicates that the two components are a poor cluster with ~3 x 10^14 M_⊙ and a less massive group with ~10^13 M_⊙. Cl 1604+4304 is a centrally concentrated, rich cluster at z = 0.8967 with a velocity dispersion of 1226 km s^-1 and a mass of ~3 x 10^15 M_⊙. A large percentage of the cluster members show high levels of star formation activity. Approximately 57% and 50% of the galaxies are active in Cl 0023+0423 and Cl 1604+4304, respectively. These numbers are significantly larger than those found in intermediate-redshift clusters. We also observe many old, red galaxies. Found mainly in Cl 1604+4304, they have spectra consistent with passive stellar evolution, typical of the populations of early-type galaxies in low- and intermediate-redshift clusters. We have calculated their ages by comparing their spectral energy distributions to standard Bruzual & Charlot evolutionary models. We find that their colors are consistent with models having an exponentially decreasing star formation rate with a time constant of 0.6 Gyr. We also observe a significant luminosity brightening in our brightest cluster galaxies. Compared with brightest cluster galaxies at z ~ 0.1, we find a luminosity increase of ~1 mag in the rest M_B and ~0.8 mag in the rest M_V. In the field, we find that ~76% of the galaxies with z > 0.4 show emission-line activity. These numbers are consistent with previous studies. We find that an exponentially decaying star formation rate is required to produce the observed amount of star formation for the majority of the galaxies in our sample. A time constant of tau = 0.6 Gyr appears to be optimal. We also detect several interesting galaxies at z > 1. Two of these galaxies are extremely luminous, with strong Mg ii lambda2800 absorption and Fe ii resonance-line absorption. These lines are so strong that we conclude that they must be generated within the atmospheres of a large population of young, hot stars.
The Astronomical Journal
- Pub Date:
- August 1998
- GALAXIES: CLUSTERS: INDIVIDUAL: ALPHANUMERIC: CL 0023+0423;
- GALAXIES: CLUSTERS: INDIVIDUAL: ALPHANUMERIC: CL 1604+4304;
- 65 pages, 21 figures. (Two are large plate images available from the lead author). Accepted for publication in the Astronomical Journal