Genetic and Behavioural Evidence of Monogamy in a Mammal, Kirk's dik-dik (Madoqua kirkii)
Little is known about the mating behaviour of monogamous mammals. Here, we present behavioural and genetic evidence of fidelity in a socially monogamous dwarf antelope, Kirk's dik-dik. DNA microsatellite analysis revealed no evidence of extra-pair paternity (EPP) in dik-diks: mothers' partners matched the paternal genotype in all 12 juveniles tested. One likely reason for the absence of EPP is that males guard their mates closely during oestrus and over-mark all female scent, thereby reducing the likelihood of other males attempting to mate. In addition, males may be limited in their ability to search for extra-pair copulations (EPCs) by activities associated with pair-bond maintenance. Year-round, males maintained proximity within pairs, followed their females' activity patterns, and spent approximately 64% of their time with their partners. However, males did attempt to obtain EPCs when the opportunity arose, and genetic monogamy in dik-diks is probably best explained by the behaviour of females: in contrast to many monogamous female birds, female dik-diks do not appear to seek EPC partners. We propose that females avoid extra-pair males because they are unable to mate with them without instigating a potentially dangerous conflict.
Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B
- Pub Date:
- May 1997