We discuss five-dimensional supersymmetric gauge theories. An anomaly renders some theories inconsistent and others consistent only upon including a Wess-Zumino type Chern-Simons term. We discuss some necessary conditions for existence of non-trivial renormalization group fixed points and find all possible gauge groups and matter content which satisfy them. In some cases, the existence of these fixed points can be inferred from string duality considerations. In other cases, they arise from M-theory on Calabi-Yau threefolds. We explore connections between aspects of the gauge theory and Calabi-Yau geometry. A consequence of our classification of field theories with non-trivial fixed points is a fairly complete classification of a class of singularities of Calabi-Yau threefolds which generalize the "del Pezzo contractions" and occur at higher codimension walls of the Kähler cone.