Laser-induced fluorescence diagnostics of basal cell carcinomas of the skin following topical ALA application
Fourteen patients with superficial basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and fifteen patients with nodular BCCs were investigated by means of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) in connection with photodynamic therapy (PDT). Topical application of (delta) -amino levulinic acid (ALA) was performed six hours prior to the treatment session. Fluorescence spectra were recorded, using a point-monitoring system with an excitation wavelength of 405 nm. The measurements were performed in scans over the lesion and the surrounding normal skin before application of ALA, and immediately before and after the laser treatment. The selective uptake of the photosensitive resulted in a fluorescence intensity ratio of 2.4:1 for superficial BCCs and 2.5:1 for nodular BCCs. If the fluorescence intensity was divided by the autofluorescence, this resulted in a contrast enhancement of about a factor 6 for tumor tissue. In seven patients (five with nodular BCC and two with superficial BCC), additional fluorescence measurements were performed two and four hours following the ALA application, and two hours after the PDT procedure. Thus, the kinetics of the transformation of ALA to protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) could be followed, which indicated that the synthesis of PpIX was more rapid in the tumor than in the normal tissue. After four hours, the PpIX level inside the tumour was saturated, while there still was an accumulation in the surrounding skin. The highest contrast between tumor and normal skin was reached within two hours after the ALA application.
Optical Biopsies and Microscopic Techniques
- Pub Date:
- December 1996