Design Considerations of a Novel Two-Beam Accelerator
This thesis reports the design study of a new type of charged particle accelerator called the Twobetron. The accelerator consists of two beams of electrons traveling through a series of pillbox cavities. The power of a high current annular beam excites an electromagnetic mode in the cavities, which, in turn, drives a low current on-axis pencil beam to high energy. We focus on the design considerations that would make use of existing pulsed power systems, for a proof-of-principle experiment. Potential applications of this new device include radiotherapy, materials processing, and high energy accelerators. The first phase of the research involves analytic description of the accelerating process. This reveals the problem of phase slippage. Derbenev's proposed cure of beam radius modulation is analyzed. Further studies include the effect of initial phase and secondary beam loading. Scaling laws to characterize the Twobetron's performance are derived. Computer simulation is performed to produce a self-consistent analysis of the dynamics of the space charge and its interaction with the accelerator structure. Particle -in-cell simulations answer several questions concerning beam stability, cavity modes, and the nature of the structure. Specifically, current modulation on the primary beam is preserved in the simulations. However, these simulations also revealed that mode competition and significant cavity coupling are serious issues that need to be addressed. Also considered is non-axisymmetric instability on the driver beam of the Twobetron, in particular, the beam breakup instability (BBU), which is known to pose a serious threat to linear accelerators in general. We extend the classical analysis of BBU to annular beams. The effect of higher order non-axisymmetric modes is also examined. It is shown that annular beams are more stable than pencil beams to BBU in general. Our analysis also reveals that the rf magnetic field is more important than the rf electric field in contributing to BBU growth. We next address the issue of primary beam modulation. Both particle-in-cell and analytic investigation showed that the usual relativistic klystron amplifiers (RKA) mechanism cannot provide full beam modulation at convenient levels of external rf drive. However, the recent discovery at the Air Force Phillips Laboratory of the injection locked relativistic klystron oscillator suggests that electromagnetic feedback between the driver cavity and the booster cavity might significantly enhance the current modulation. A simple model is constructed to analyze this cavity coupling and its mutual interaction with the primary beam. Quantitative agreement is found between our model and the Phillips Laboratory experiments. This analysis suggests that significant current modulation on the primary beam may be achieved with low level external rf drive.
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- Engineering: Nuclear; Physics: Fluid and Plasma; Physics: Elementary Particles and High Energy; Physics: Nuclear