The Cesarian telescope consists of concave primary and secondary mirrors facing each other on the system's optical axis, carrying the same curves and hyperbolic deformation constants. The name is descriptive in that the secondary mirror can be taken from the middle of the primary mirror, with appropriate preparation, after finishing is completed, necessitating the fabrication and testing of only one optical surface. The final focal plane can be designed to emerge at the side via a small, flat diagonal or behind the primary utilizing relay lenses. A small, Maksutov-style lens located near the focal plane will completely correct the system's coma, which is in any case significantly less than that of the equivalent Newtonian reflector. This is achieved while retaining perfect stigmatism and excellent chromatic correction. The primary can also function as the objective of a Ritchey-Chretien design in an alternative configuration.