COLLOIDAL particles of metals and semiconductors have potentially useful optical, optoelectronic and material properties1-4 that derive from their small (nanoscopic) size. These properties might lead to applications including chemical sensors, spectro-scopic enhancers, quantum dot and nanostructure fabrication, and microimaging methods2-4. A great deal of control can now be exercised over the chemical composition, size and polydis-persity1,2 of colloidal particles, and many methods have been developed for assembling them into useful aggregates and materials. Here we describe a method for assembling colloidal gold nanoparticles rationally and reversibly into macroscopic aggregates. The method involves attaching to the surfaces of two batches of 13-nm gold particles non-complementary DNA oligo-nucleotides capped with thiol groups, which bind to gold. When we add to the solution an oligonucleotide duplex with 'sticky ends' that are complementary to the two grafted sequences, the nanoparticles self-assemble into aggregates. This assembly process can be reversed by thermal denaturation. This strategy should now make it possible to tailor the optical, electronic and structural properties of the colloidal aggregates by using the specificity of DNA interactions to direct the interactions between particles of different size and composition.