Source characterisation of the Central European atmospheric aerosol using multivariate statistical methods
From late March 1993 to late April 1994, a total of 313 daily samples of the fine fraction ambient aerosol were collected at the meteorological station at Bily Kriz in the Beskydy Mts. located in the NE corner of the Czech Republic. Altogether 29 elements were detected in the PIXE analysis out of which 18 were used for receptor modelling (Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Sr, Pb). Six main source types could be extracted with the aid of an absolute principal component analysis (APCA) receptor model; a combined ferrous/non-ferrous smelter-wood-traffic source type, soil dust, oil combustion, coal combustion, secondary sulphate and sea spray. The source apportionment provided by APCA was able to reproduce the measured mean concentrations for all elements except Si and Sr within ±8% or better. The source region identification was based on three-dimensional air mass back trajectories. The sampled fine fraction aerosol was clearly affected by the heavily industrialised region around the cities of Ostrava and Katowice close to the border between the Czech Republic and Poland. The influence of other large European source regions such as southern Ukraine, northern Italy, the SE Balkan peninsula, the Benelux countries and the "Black triangle" in Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic could also be studied.